Paper Code: 
ZOL 125
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course objectives:

This course will enable the students to –

  1. Design and conduct experiments, using a broad variety of experimental techniques, and interpret the data obtained to draw conclusions about whether the results do or do not support a hypothesis being tested and whether the experimental design was appropriate.
  2. Work collaboratively with other students and with faculty, understanding that most scientific knowledge/conclusions draw(s) on multiple sources of data and multiple experimental approaches.
  3. Learn “best approaches” for conducting experiments including laboratory safety, data replication and quality control, record keeping, and other aspects of “responsible conduct of research”.
  4. Gain familiarity with an area of science such that the students can present their work to a professional audience and also discuss their work with a general audience.


Course Outcomes (COs):


Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Paper Code

Paper Title

ZOL 125


The students will –


CO22: Illustrate different laboratory specimens based on their external features and appearance and their categorical relation with various phylum.

CO23: Students will get hands-on experience of various fixation and staining techniques using different biological specimens.

CO24: Enhance their knowledge about different mitotic stages by preparing temporary slides of the onion root tip and visualizing the stages by their key features.

CO25: Experiment various qualitative and quantitative biochemical techniques to differentiate between different biomolecules based on their physical and chemical properties.

CO26: Analyse the effect of temperature on the enzymatic activity and gain hands-on expertise in separation of various solutes using chromatographic techniques.

Approach in teaching:

Interactive Lectures, Discussion, Tutorials, Reading assignments, Demonstration, Team teaching


Learning activities for the students:

Self-learning assignments, Effective questions, Simulation, Seminar presentation, Giving tasks, Field practical



Class test

Semester end examinations

Viva voce



Individual and group projects



Identification, classification & study of distinguishing features of representatives from various groups.

  • Phylum Protozoa- Polystomella, Formanifera, Opalina, Paramecium(Fission & conjugation) Vorticella, Euglena,Trypanosoma,Monocystis,Plasmodium.
  • Phylum Porifera-Sycon L.S & T.S, Spicules, Spongin fibres, Leucosolenia, Euplectella
  • Phylum Cnidaria- Obelia,(Polyp & Medusa), Millepora, Physalia,Pennatula, Metridium, Madrepora, Alcyonium, Gorgonia, Aurelia.
  • Phylum Helminthes- Ascaris, Taenia,Planaria
  • Phylum Annelida- Pontobdella, Aphrodite, Leech, Polygordius,Chaetopterus, Nereis, Heteronereis,Arenicola.
  • Phylum Arthropoda- Cyclops, Peripatus, Balanus, Lepas, Hippa, Belostoma, Limulus, Eupagurus, Julus, Scolopendra, Prayingmantis.
  • Phylum Mollusca- Murex, Bulla, Cardium, Arca, Turritella, Pinctada,Cypraea, Octopus,Nautilus.
  • Phylum Echinodermata- Echinus, Holothuria, Antedon, Asterias
  • Minor Phyla- Bugula, Plumatella, Crestatella, Pectinella,Phoronis,Dendrostoma
  • Larval Stages: Planula, Redia, Miracidium, Sporocyst,Cercaria,Metacercaria, Trochophore, Nauplius, Zoea, Mysis, Phyllosoma, Trilobite larva ofLimulus, Glochidium, Bipinnaria, Echinopluteus, Auricularia, Tornaria


  • Cockroach: General anatomy, Reproductive system, Nervous system Mouthparts:Cockroach and Mosquito

Biosystematics, taxonomy and evolution

  • Composition and assessment of the taxonomic diversity/biodiversity in a habitat (e.g. grassland, arid land, wet land etc.)
  • Estimation of gene and genotypic frequencies in light of Hardy-Weinberg law based on facial traits/thumb prints, ABO blood group data etc.
  • Project: Preparation of models showing the status of certain taxa or species in a particular habitat.
  • Identification of Phytoplanktons and Zooplanktons from fresh water samples.

Cell Biology

  • Preparation of different cell types: Liver Hepatocytes , Adipocytes, Spleen cells
  • Study of Polytene chromosomes in salivary glands ofChironomus larva/Drosophila
  • Light microscopic examination and preparation of tissue sections.
  • Study of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes from permanent prepared slides.
  • Preparation of slides for mitotic study.
  • Preparation of slides for meiotic study in the testis of grasshopper.
  • Preparation of multipolar nerve cells from the spinal cord of mammal.
  • Barr body preparation in buccal epithelial cells.


  • Qualitative analysis of Lipid, protein and Carbohydrate samples
  • Colorimetric/Spectrophotometric estimation of:
    • Carbohydrate- glycogen,
    • cholesterol
    • Protein
    • Nucleic acids:DNA,RNA
  • Study of temperature effect on enzyme action: salivary amylase, liver catalase


Essential Readings: 
Vertebrates Comparative anatomy, function, evolution, K.V. Kardong, Tata-McGraw  Hill,New Delhi. 
● Practical Zoology, vertebrates, Lal, S.S. Rastogi Publications, Meerut 
● Practical Zoology, vertebrates,Kohli,K.S.,Ansari, A.S. Ramesh Book Depot, Jaipur. 
● Introductory practical Biochemistry, Sawhney S.K., Singh R. 2009. 7th edition, Narosa publishing house Pvt. Ltd.
Wilson,K. and Walker, J. Principles and techniques of practical biochemistry,  Cambridge press.
Jordon, E.L., Verma P.S. Invertebrate Zoology, S Chand and Co.
Laboratory manual in Invertebrate & Experimental Zoology, Jacob VyasRamesh Book Depot, New Delhi.
● Zubay G. Biochemistry, William C. Brown Pub. 
● Standard methods of biochemical analysis. Thimmaiah, S.R. Kalyani Publishers, Noida
Experimental Biochemistry- NPTEL-
Biochemistry virtual lab- Amrita- 
Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering- NPTEL labs-
Academic Year: