Develomental Biology

Paper Code: 
ZOL 413
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course objectives:


This course will enable the students to -


  1. Understand the mechanism of development of an individual from a single cell zygote
  2. Enlighten about the events of fertilization, types of cleavage, stages and cellular mechanisms for gastrulation.
  3. Acquaintance about fate maps, extraembryonic membranes and Organogenesis in Chick,
  4. Discussion about the types & physiology of the placenta
  5. Study about metamorphosis and the role of Hormones involved in the process.
  6. Describe the process of Apoptosis and Teratogenesis


Course Outcomes (COs):


Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies



Paper Code

Paper Title


Developmental biology

The students will be able to

CO 69: Describe the mechanism of development of an individual from a single cell zygote

CO 70: Explain the process of fertilization, types of cleavage, stages and cellular mechanisms for gastrulation.

CO 71: Know about Organogenesis in Chick, Extra embryonic membranes, Types & physiology of the placenta

CO 72: Describe the Role of Hormones in metamorphosis

CO 73: Discuss the process of Apoptosis and Teratogenesis.

The approach in teaching:

Interactive Lectures, Discussion, Tutorials, Reading assignments, Demonstration, PowerPoint presentations, Explanation by videos

Learning activities for the students:

Self learning assignments, Effective questions, Simulation, Seminar presentation, Giving tasks


  • Class test
  • Semester end examinations,
  • Quiz,
  • Assignments,
  • Presentation
  • Surprise test
  • Open book test





Baer’s Law, Biogenetic Law

Gametogenesis- Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis,


Types of eggs

Fertilization- Approximation of Gametes, Capacitation and contact, Acrosomal reactions, activation of ovum, Migration of Pronuclei and amphimixis, and Significance



Cleavage: Planes and Patterns of cleavage, Types of cleavage,

 Blastulation, Gastrulation, Morphogenetic Movements,


Fate maps (Amphibian, Chick), Methods of preparation of fate maps

Embryology of Chicks: Cleavage, morula, discoblastula, gastrulation, neurulation and tabulation

Extra embryonic membranes: Types and formation of extra embryonic membranes

Types and physiology of placenta


Concept of Embryonic Induction (types)

 Regeneration in Vertebrates


Stem Cells :Types and Significance


Metamorphosis in Frog & Insects. Role of Hormones in metamorphosis



Essential Readings: 
  • Gilbert, S. F. (2010). Developmental Biology, IX Edition, Sinauer Associates,Inc., Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Balinsky B. I. and Fabian B. C. (1981). An Introduction to Embryology, V Edition, International Thompson Computer Press.
  • Carlson, R. F. Patten's Foundations of Embryology
  • Kalthoff (2008). Analysis of Biological Development, II Edition, McGraw-Hill Publishers.
  • Lewis Wolpert (2002). Principles of Development. II Edition, Oxford University Press.
  • Developmental Biology. Berril. N.J. and Karp. G.Mc Graw Hill, New York.
  • Gene activity during early development, Davidson, E. H. Academic Press, New York.
Academic Year: