Paper Code: 
ZOL 103
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course Objectives:

This course will enable the students to

1. Identify laboratory specimens based on their external features and appearance of various phyla.

2. Develop knowledge about various fixation and staining techniques using different biological specimens.

3.  Enhance their knowledge about different mitotic stages by preparing temporary slides of the onion root tip and visualizing the stages by their key features.

Course Outcomes (COs):


Learning outcomes (at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Paper Code

Paper Title





ZOL 103






The students will –

CO11: Develop              knowledge about diversity in animal  kingdom   by studying representative animals  from each phylum.

CO12: Correlate different laboratory specimens based on their classification and characters.

CO13: Students will get hands- on experience of staining techniques using different biological samples.

CO14: Distinguish different mitotic stages by preparing temporary slides of the  onion root tip and visualizing them and analyzing their key characteristics.


Approach in teaching:

Substantial laboratory based practical demonstration,


Discussion, Action Research, Project, Field Trip

Learning activities for the students:

Laboratory practices, Field activities, Simulation, Presentation, Giving tasks


Technology enabled learning observation

Class test

Semester end examinations



Presentation Report writing





Animal Diversity

       Study of museum specimens and slides:

  • Protozoa :Paramecium(WM), Binary fission, Conjugation, Entamoeba, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Monocystis, Opalina, Vorticella, Balantidium, Nyctotherus, Euglena
  • Porifera: Sycon L.S & T.S, Sponge spicules, Spongin fibres,Leucosolenia, Euplectella, Spongilla.
  • Coelenterata: Hydra, Obelia(polyp), Aurelia, Sea anemone, Gorgonia, Physalia, Vellela, Alcyonium, Millepora, Pennatula
  • Platyhelminthes: Planaria, Fasciola,Taenia-- Scolex, Gravid proglottid
  • Aschelminthes:Ascaris(Male & Female), Dracunculus

 Cell Biology

  • Principle & working of Dissecting microscope &Compound microscope
  • Fixation and staining
  • Fixatives:-Carnoys, Bouins, formalin
  • Stains:- Acetocarmine, Acetorcein, Eosin, Haematoxylin
  • Double & Single staining
  • Staining of Euglena,Hydra,Obelia,Foraminiferans,Sponge Spicules,Spongegemmules,Spongin Fibres
  • Principle & working of Centrifuge (Only Demonstration)
  • Mitosis- Onion root tip (Temporary slide Preparation)
  • Meiosis-Study of Permanent slides



Essential Readings: 



●    Pechenik, J.A. Biology of invertebrates, TataMc-Graw Hill Ltd, New Delhi.

●    Jordon, E.L., Verma P.S. Invertebrate Zoology, S Chand and Co.

●    Practical Zoology, Invertebrates, Lal, S.S. Rastogi Publications, Meerut

●    Practical Zoology, Invertebrates, Kohli,K.S.,Ansari, A.S. Ramesh Book Depot, New Delhi.

●    Laboratory manual in Invertebrate & Experimental Zoology, Jacob VyasRamesh Book Depot, New Delhi.

●    Practical Zoology, Jacob, D., Bhatia,A.L., Kohli,K.S., Vyas,D.K.Ramesh Book Depot, New Delhi.


Academic Year: