Tools & Techniques

Paper Code: 
ZOL 222
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course objective

  •  To provide students with a basic understanding of diverse techniques from microscopy to spectroscopy, calorimetry, chromatography, electrophoresis, ELISA, tissue culture to cloning etc
  •  The course gives a hand on approach to expose the students to modern tools, techniques and methodologies. 

Learning outcomes

Learning outcome (at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Students will be able to:

CLO28: Understand the purpose of the technique and the theoretical basis of technique, its principle of working and its correct application.

CLO29: Learn the maintenance of laboratory equipment/ tools, safety hazards and precautions. Understand the technique of cell and tissue culture and an idea on various reproductive technologies

CLO30: Learn the principle and applications of radioisotopes in biological sciences and detection and measurement of radiation.


Approach in teaching:

Interactive Lectures, Discussion, Power Point presentations, Assignments, Demonstration, Guest lectures


Learning activities for the students:

Self learning assignments, Effective questions, Simulation, Seminar presentation, Giving tasks, Field practical


·         Class test

·         Semester end examinations

·         Quiz

·         Assignments

·         Presentation

·         Individual and group presentations


Unit I: 

Principle and application of :-

  • Light microscopy
  • Phase contrast microscopy
  • Polarized microscopy
  • Fluorescence microscopy
  • Transmission electron microscopy
  • Scanning electron microscopy

Confocal scanning microscopy

Unit II: 

Principle and application of :-

  • Ultracentrifugation :Differential and density gradient
  • Electrophoresis: Agarose, PAGE, Isoelectro-focussing points and Capillary electrphoresis
  • Chromatography: Paper, TLC, GLC, HPLC,Ion-exchange and Affinity chromatography
  • Lamberts – Beer’s Law and Colorimetery,
  • Spectrophotometery: fluorescence,UV, NMR,, ESR.
Unit III: 

Principle and application of radiation techniques in biology

  • Radioisotopes and half life of isotopes
  • Tracer techniques in biology
  • Auotoradiography
  • Geiger Muller counter
  • Scintillation Counter

Freeze techniques: Freeze –drying, Freeze substitution, Freeze fracture and freeze itch

X-ray diffraction

Flow cytometery/fluorescence activated cell sorter

Unit IV: 

Principles and technique of :-

  • Nucleic acid hybridization and cot curves
  • Sequencing of nucleic acids
  • Blotting techniques(southern, northern and western)
  • Polymerase chain reaction

Screening of genomic and complementary DNA libraries

Unit V: 
  • Hybridoma technology
  • Embryo sexing     
  • Assisted reproductive technologies

Cell culture techniques:-culture media, primary and secondary culture,cell line, transformation,techniques (in brief)Cell proliferation measurements, Cell viability test

Essential Readings: 
  1. Cell and Molecular Biology, (3rd edition), P Sheeler and D E Bianchi, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1987
  2. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments, (4th edition), G  Karp, John Wiley & sons, Inc., 2005.
  3. Introduction to Instrumental analysis; Robert Braun:, Mc –Graw hill,
  4. Essentials of Biophysics, P Narayanan, New Age Int. Pub. New Delhi. 2000
  5. Fundamental Laboratory Approaches for Biochemistry and Biotechnology, A J Ninfa., D P Ballou,  Fitzgerald science press, Inc., 1998
  6. Principles and Practice of Bioanalysis, R F Venn, Taylor and Francis, 2003
  7. Principles and Techniques  of Biochemistry and  Molecular Biology ,(6th edition), K Wilson and J Walker (editor), Cambridge University Press, 2007
  8. Bioinstrumentation, J G Webster,  John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2004     
  9. Methods in Modern Biophysics, B Notting, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2003
  10. Protein Purification Principles and Practice, (3rd edition), R K Scopes, Spring International, 2004
  11. Spectroscopy for the Biological Sciences, G G Hames, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2005   
Academic Year: