Research Methodology and Special Skills

Paper Code: 
LSC 141
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 
Unit I: 

§  Research:Meaning,Definition,Methodology,research processes,criteria of good research.

§  Types of research:  Fundamental or basic, applied, Historical, descriptive, analytical, qualitative, quantitative, experimental, conceptual, case study.

§  Research design: Meaning, concepts, need, designs for different types of research.

§  Research problem and developing research proposal: Selection of research area and topic, statement of the research problem ,its scope ,steps involved in defining the problem.

§  Literature search: reviewing related literature, referencing, abstracting, computer search, bibliography, evaluation of the problem.

Defining concepts: objectives, basic assumptions delimitations and limitations of the problem, statement of hypothesis.

Unit II: 

§  Variables: independent and dependent variables, qualitative and quantitative variables, discrete and continuous variables, methods of controlling variables. Measurement of variables.

§  Sampling: Meaning, characteristics of good sample design, steps in sample design ,types and advantages.

§  Techniques of data collection:

primary data; Questionnaire, schedules, interview, observation and other methods

Secondary data: Reliability ,suitability and adequacy of data

§   Processing and analysis of data : Processing operations :editing, coding, classification and tabulation of data, role of statistics in data analysis, statistical tables.

Report writing: types, format

Unit III: 

§  Theory of probability: Probability sampling. Simple, random, systematic random sampling. Two stage and multistage sampling. Cluster sampling, Non probability sampling: purposive, quota an volunteer sampling, snow ball sampling.

§  Common distribution function: binomial probability distribution ,Poisson distribution and normal distribution curve.

§   Standard deviation, Standard error

Test of significance:t-test, chi-test, ANOVA,F-test,

Unit IV: 

§  Microscopy: Light, dark field, phase contrast, interference, polarization, florescence, transmission and scanning electron microscope, Confocal, Deconvolution.

§  Separation Techniques:

Ø  Chromatography - Thin layer chromatography, absorption column chromatography, Ion exchange chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Size exclusion Chromatography.

Ø  Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE, Agarose Gels, Electrofocusing, Capillary.

Ø  Centrifugation: Differential and density gradient centrifugation, zonal and isopycnic separation (Brief account).

Modern tools for inventory, monitoring and conservation of biodiversity : GIS and GPS.

Unit V: 

§  Spectrophotometry: Colorimetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Flame emission spectroscopy.

§  P.C.R. and  Types  

Ø  Inverse PCR

Ø  Anchored PCR.

Ø  PCR for site directed mutagenesis.

Ø  Cloning and expression of the PCR product.

Asymmetric PCR for DNA sequencing.

Essential Readings: 

·         Plant Biotechnology, Hammond, P. McGarvey and V. Yusibov (Editors.) Springer Verlag, 2000.

·         Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the Production of Food ingredients. J. Fu, G. Singh, and W.R. Curtis (Editors), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.1999.

·         Advanced Methods in Plant Biotechnology, David. R. Murray: Panima Publishing Corporation. 1996

·         Plant Tissue Culture – Techniques & Experiments, (2nd edition) Roberta. H. Smith.  Elsevier. 2000

·         Plant Molecular Biology – A Practical Approach. C. H. Shaw, IRL Press Ltd.

·         Molecular plant Biology- volume 1 & 2. Philip M. Gilmartin and Chris Bowler,  Oxford University Press. 2005

·         Plant Tissue Culture. S.S. Bhojwani and M.K Razdan,  Elsevier. 2004

·         Biotechnology in Crop improvement, H.S. Chawla, International Book Distributing Company, 1998.

·         Practical Application of plant Molecular Biology, R.J. Henry, Chapman



Academic Year: