Research Methodology and Special Skills

Paper Code: 
LSC 141
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 
Unit I: 
Research:Meaning,Definition,Methodology,research processes,criteria of good research.
▪ Types of research: Fundamental or basic, applied, Historical, descriptive, analytical, qualitative, quantitative, experimental, conceptual, case study.
▪ Research design: Meaning, concepts, need, designs for different types of research.
▪ Research problem and developing research proposal: Selection of research area and topic, statement of the research problem ,its scope ,steps involved in defining the problem.
▪ Literature search: reviewing related literature, referencing, abstracting, computer search, bibliography, evaluation of the problem.
▪ Defining concepts: objectives, basic assumptions delimitations and limitations of the problem, statement of hypothesis.
Unit II: 

Variables: independent and dependent variables, qualitative and quantitative variables, discrete andcontinuous variables, methods of controlling variables. Measurement of variables.

▪ Sampling: Meaning, characteristics of good sample design, steps in sample design ,types and advantages.
▪ Techniques of data collection:
primary data; Questionnaire, schedules, interview, observation and other methods
Secondary data: Reliability ,suitability and adequacy of data
▪ Processing and analysis of data : Processing operations :editing, coding, classification and tabulation of data, role of statistics in data analysis, statistical tables.
▪ Report writing: types, format
Unit III: 
Theory of probability: Probability sampling. Simple, random, systematic random sampling. Two stage and multistage sampling. Cluster sampling, Non probability sampling: purposive, quota an volunteer sampling, snow ball sampling.
▪ Common distribution function: binomial probability distribution ,Poisson distribution and normal distribution curve.
▪ Standard deviation, Standard error
▪ Test of significance:t-test, chi-test, ANOVA,F-test,
Unit IV: 
Microscopy: Light, dark field, phase contrast, interference, polarization, florescence, transmission and scanning electron microscope, Confocal, Deconvolution.
▪ Separation Techniques:
Chromatography - Thin layer chromatography, absorption column chromatography, Ion exchange chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Size exclusion Chromatography.
➢ Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE, Agarose Gels, Electrofocusing, Capillary.
➢ Centrifugation: Differential and density gradient centrifugation, zonal and isopycnic separation (Brief account).
▪ Modern tools for inventory, monitoring and conservation of biodiversity : GIS and GPS.
Unit V: 
Spectrophotometry: Colorimetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Flame emission spectroscopy.
▪ P.C.R. and Types
➢ Inverse PCR
➢ Anchored PCR.
➢ PCR for site directed mutagenesis.
➢ Cloning and expression of the PCR product.
➢ Asymmetric PCR for DNA sequencing.
Essential Readings: 
Books Recommended:
• Plant Biotechnology, Hammond, P. McGarvey and V. Yusibov (Editors.) Springer Verlag, 2000.
• Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the Production of Food ingredients. J. Fu, G. Singh, and W.R. Curtis (Editors), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.1999.
• Advanced Methods in Plant Biotechnology, David. R. Murray: Panima Publishing Corporation. 1996
• Plant Tissue Culture – Techniques & Experiments, (2nd edition) Roberta. H. Smith. Elsevier. 2000
• Plant Molecular Biology – A Practical Approach. C. H. Shaw, IRL Press Ltd.
Molecular plant Biology- volume 1 & 2. Philip M. Gilmartin and Chris Bowler, Oxford University Press. 2005
• Plant Tissue Culture. S.S. Bhojwani and M.K Razdan, Elsevier. 2004
• Biotechnology in Crop improvement, H.S. Chawla, International Book Distributing Company, 1998.
• Practical Application of plant Molecular Biology, R.J. Henry, Chapman


Academic Year: