Reproductive Biology

Paper Code: 
LSC 144 C
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 
Unit I: 

Biology of Spermatozoa and Ovum: Structure, Development and Function :

·                     The female reproductive system: anatomy and physiology of the mammalian ovary and ductal system. Follicular growth, ovarian hormones, two cell theory of estrogen biosynthesis. Autocrine, Paracrine and endocrine regulation of ovarian functions.

The male reproductive system: anatomy and physiology of the mammalian testis and the sex accessory glands; Functional Organization of testis, spermatogenic cycle. Testicular androgens, autocrine, paracrine,and endocrine regulation of testicular functions. Semen and its biochemical nature

Unit II: 

Regulation of reproduction :

·        The pituitary gland : Functional cytology,

     denohypophyseal hormones, their chemistry and   


  • The Hypothalamus and its neurosecretory centres:

     Structure of neurosecretory cells, the hypothathalamic            

         principles: synthesis, storage, release and chemistry.

  • The phenomenon of neuroendocrine integration and

      the hypothalamo- hypophyseal- gonadal axis.

·           Role of Thyroid, Pineal and Adrenal glands in     


 Miscellaneous factors affecting reproduction: nutrition. light, temperature, pheromones, environmental disruptors.

Unit III: 

Diagnosis of male infertility

  • Semen analysis: Physical examinations, microscopic examinations, biochemical analysis, Immunological tests.
  • Sperm function tests: Sperm mitochondrial Hypo-Osmotic Swelling (HOS)Test, Acrosome, reaction.  Acrosome Intactness (AI) test.

Endocrinological diagnosis

Unit IV: 

Reproductive Toxicology:

·                                 Female reproduction-(Hypothalamus, ovary

     assessment of female reproductive functions),

·                     Male reproduction-(Biology of male reproduction,

     assessment of male reproductive function) 

Unit V: 

Reproductive Techniques:

  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
  • Super ovulation, Oocyte collection.
  • Collection and preparation of sperm for assisted


Ø  Insemination.

Ø  In- vitro fertilization and related techniques (IVF, GIFT, ZIFT, TET, ICSl ).

·         Cryopreservation of semen, oocytes and embryos.

·         Teratological effects of Xenobiotics

·         Pre-natal diagnosis

Impact of aging, Hormone Replacement Therapy 

Essential Readings: 
  • Ball, G.H. Davidson, J.N. & Scarburough, H.,:Text book of physiology & Biochemistry E. & S. Livingstone Ltd. London (1956). .
  • Bast, C.H. & Tayler, N.B. :Physiological basis of medical practices, Dilkins Co. Baltimore. (1957).
  • Guyton A.G.:Text book of Medical Physiology, 7th ed. Saunders Publishers (1986).
  • Hoar, W.S. :General and comparative Animal physiology 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi (1983).
  • Scheer: General Physiology
  • Schmidt Nielsen, K. Animal Physiology, Adaptations & Environment, Cambridge Univ. Press (1975).
  • Tumer CII. General Endocrinology. W.B. Daunders, Tippan Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan (1966).
  • Schmidt Nielsen, K.: Animal Physiology, Adaptations & Environment Cambridge Press (1975).
  • Tumer CII: General Endocrinology, W.B. Saunders, Tippan Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan (1966).
  • General and Comparative Endocrinology, E.J.W. Barrington. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
  • Text Book of Endocrinology, R.H. Williams. W.B. Saunders.
  • Endocrine Physiology. C.R. Martin. Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Assali,N.S.: Biology of Gestation.VolI and II. Academic press, New York.
  • Birkhead T.K. and Moller A.P. :Sperm competition and sexual selection. Academic press,London,1998.
  • Cole, H.h. ,Cupps P.T.: Reproduction in domestic animals.
  • Dorfman, R.I.: Methods in hormone research (Vol I and Vol II) . Academic press, New York.1962.
  • Edwards R.G. and Brody S,A.: Principles and practice of assisted human reproduction. W.b. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,1995.


Academic Year: