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  • Design and conduct experiments, using a broad variety of experimental techniques, and interpret the data obtained to draw conclusions about whether the results do or do not support a hypothesis being tested and whether the experimental design was appropriate.
  • Work collaboratively with other students and with faculty, understanding that most scientific knowledge/conclusions draw(s) on multiple sources of data and multiple experimental approaches.
  • Learn “best approaches” for conducting experiments including laboratory safety, data replication and quality control, record keeping, and other aspects of “responsible conduct of research”.
  • Gain familiarity with an area of science such that the students can present their work to a professional audience and also discuss their work with a general audience.
  • Develop problem solving skills and analytical thinking skills.

Animal Diversity I


Study of museum specimens and slides:


  • Protozoa :Paramecium(WM), Binary fission, Conjugation, Entamoeba, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Monocystis, Opalina, Vorticella, Balantidium, Nyctotherus, Euglena


  • Porifera: Sycon L.S & T.S, Sponge spicules, Sponginfibres

Leucosolenia, Euplectella, Spongilla.


  • Coelentrata: Hydra, Obelia(polyp), Aurelia, Sea anemone, Gorgonia, Physalia, Vellela, Alcyonium, Millepora, Pennatula


  • Platyhelminthes: Planaria, Fasciola,Taenia-- Scolex, Gravid proglottid


  • Aschelminthes:Ascaris(Male & Female), Dracunculus


Cell Biology


Principle & working of

  • Dissecting microscope
  • Compound microscope   

Fixation and staining

  • Fixatives:- Carnoys, Bouins, formalin
  • Stains:- Acetocarmine, Acetorcein, Eosin,        Haematoxylin
  • Double & Single staining
  • Staining of Euglena,Hydra,Obelia,Foraminiferous shell,Sponge spicules,Sponge gemmules,Sponginfibres

                 Principle & working of Centrifuge (Only Demonstration)

                 Mitosis- Onion root tip (Temporary slide Preparation)

                 Meiosis-Study of Permanent slides

Essential Readings: 
  • Pechenik, J.A. Biology of invertebrates,TataMc-Graw Hill Ltd, New Delhi.
  • Jordon, E.L., Verma P.S. Invertebrate Zoology, S Chand and Co.
  • Practical Zoology, Invertebrates, Lal, S.S. Rastogi Publications, Meerut
  • Practical Zoology, Invertebrates, Kohli,K.S.,Ansari, A.S. Ramesh Book Depot, New Delhi.
  • Laboratory manual in Invertebrate & Experimental Zoology, Jacob VyasRamesh Book Depot, New Delhi.
  • Practical Zoology, Jacob, D., Bhatia,A.L., Kohli,K.S., Vyas,D.K.Ramesh Book Depot, New Delhi.
  • Biology of Animals. C.P. Hickmann,  L.S. Roberts and A. Larson. McGraw Hill Company, New York.
  • Practical Zoology, Jacob, D., Bhatia,A.L., Kohli,K.S., Vyas,D.K.Ramesh Book Depot, New Delhi.
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