Paper Code: 
ZOL 125
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 
Course objectives:
This course will enable the students to –
  • Design and conduct experiments, using a broad variety of experimental techniques, and interpret the data obtained to draw conclusions about whether the results do or do not support a hypothesis being tested and whether the experimental design was appropriate.
  • Work collaboratively with other students.
  • Conclude the scientific knowledge drawn on multiple sources of data and experimental approaches.
  • Learn “best approaches” for conducting experiments including laboratory safety, data replication and quality control, record keeping, and other aspects of “responsible conduct of research”.
  • Gain familiarity with an area of science such that the students can present their work to a professional audience and also discuss their work with a general audience.
Course Outcomes (COs): 


Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Paper Code

Paper Title

ZOL 125


The Students will –


CO22: Illustrate different laboratory specimens based on their external features and appearance and their categorical relation with various phylum.

CO23: Attain hands-on experience of various fixation and staining techniques using different biological specimens.

CO24: Enhance their knowledge about different mitotic stages by preparing temporary slides of the onion root tip and visualizing the stages by their key features.

CO25: Experiment various qualitative and quantitative biochemical techniques to differentiate between different biomolecules based on their physical and chemical properties.

CO26: Analyse the effect of temperature on the enzymatic activity and gain hands-on expertise in separation of various solutes using chromatographic techniques.

Approach in teaching:

Interactive Lectures, Discussion, Tutorials, Reading assignments, Demonstration, Team teaching


Learning activities for the students:

Self learning assignments, Effective questions, Simulation, Seminar presentation, Giving tasks, Field practical



Class test

Semester end examinations

Viva voce



Individual and group projects


  • Identification, classification & study of distinguishing features of representatives from various groups.
  • Phylum Protozoa- Polystomella, Formanifera, Opalina, Paramecium(Fission & conjugation) Vorticella, Euglena,Trypanosoma,Monocystis,Plasmodium.
  • Phylum Porifera-Sycon L.S & T.S, Spicules, Spongin fibres, Leucosolenia, Euplectella
  • Phylum Cnidaria- Obelia,(Polyp & Medusa), Millepora, Physalia,Pennatula, Metridium, Madrepora, Alcyonium, Gorgonia, Aurelia.
  • Phylum Helminthes- Ascaris, Taenia,Planaria
  • Phylum Annelida- Pontobdella, Aphrodite, Leech, Polygordius,Chaetopterus, Nereis, Heteronereis,Arenicola.
  • Phylum Arthropoda- Cyclops, Peripatus, Balanus, Lepas, Hippa, Belostoma, Limulus, Eupagurus, Julus, Scolopendra, Prayingmantis.
  • Phylum Mollusca- Murex, Bulla, Cardium, Arca, Turritella, Pinctada,Cypraea, Octopus,Nautilus.
  • Phylum Echinodermata- Echinus, Holothuria, Antedon, Asterias
  • Minor Phyla- Bugula, Plumatella, Crestatella, Pectinella,Phoronis,Dendrostoma
  • Larval Stages: Planula, Redia, Miracidium, Sporocyst,Cercaria,Metacercaria, Trochophore, Nauplius, Zoea, Mysis, Phyllosoma, Trilobite larva ofLimulus, Glochidium, Bipinnaria, Echinopluteus, Auricularia, Tornaria
  • Cockroach: General anatomy, Reproductive system, Nervous system Mouthparts: Cockroach and Mosquito
Biosystematics, taxonomy and evolution
  • Composition and assessment of the taxonomic diversity/biodiversity in a habitat (e.g. grassland, arid land, wet land etc.)
  • Estimation of gene and genotypic frequencies in light of Hardy-Weinberg law based on facial traits/thumb prints, ABO blood group data etc.
  • Project: Preparation of models showing the status of certain taxa or species in a particular habitat.
  • Identification of Phytoplanktons and Zooplanktons from fresh water samples.
Cell Biology
  • Preparation of different cell types: Liver Hepatocytes , Adipocytes, Spleen cells
  • Study of Polytene chromosomes in salivary glands ofChironomus larva/Drosophila
  • Light microscopic examination and preparation of tissue sections.
  • Study of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes from permanent prepared slides.
  • Preparation of slides for mitotic study.
  • Preparation of slides for meiotic study in the testis of grasshopper.
  • Preparation of multipolar nerve cells from the spinal cord of mammal.
  • Barr body preparation in buccal epithelial cells.


  • Qualitative analysis of Lipid, protein and Carbohydrate samples
  • Colorimetric/Spectrophotometric estimation of:
  • Carbohydrate- glycogen,
  • cholesterol
  • Protein
  • Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA
  • Study of temperature effect on enzyme action: salivary amylase, liver catalase
Essential Readings: 
  • Jordon, E.L., Verma P.S. Invertebrate Zoology, S Chand and Co.
  • Laboratory manual in Invertebrate & Experimental Zoology, Jacob VyasRamesh Book Depot, New Delhi.
  • Practical Zoology, Jacob, D., Bhatia,A.L., Kohli,K.S., Vyas,D.K.Ramesh Book Depot, New Delhi.
  • Biology of Animals. C.P. Hickmann, L.S. Roberts and A. Larson. McGraw Hill Company, New York.
  • Practical Biochemistry:Principles and Techniques; Keith Wilson& John Walker;CambridgeUniversity Press.
  • Introductory Practical Biochemistry by S.K Sawhney and Randhir Singh Alpha Science
  • A Primer of Population Genetics. Hart, D.L. Suinuaer Associates, Inc, Massachusetts.
Academic Year: