Paper Code: 
ZOL 411
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 


Physiology of digestion in the alimentary canal and Role of hormone in digestion; Absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, related

diseases : (gastritis, vomiting, diarrhoea, acidity)


  • Mechanism and control of breathing.
  •  Physiology of Respiration
  • Concept of partial pressure of gases.
  • Bohr's Effect
  • Related diseases: (Emphysema, Atelectasis, Dyspnea, Cyanosis, Polycyathemia vera).

Physiology of Excretion:

  • Kinds of nitrogenous excretory end-products

            (ammonotelic. uricotelic and ureotelic)

  • Functional architecture of mammalian kidney tubule
  • Formation of urine
  • Hormonal regulation of water and electrolyte balance

Related diseases: (Addison’s disease, Conn’s disease, Diabetes insipidus.)



  • Composition and function of Blood and lymph
  •  Blood groups
  • Blood coagulation
  • Function of hemoglobin.

Physiology of Muscle Contraction

  • Functional architecture of skeletal muscle
  • Mechanism of skeleton muscle contraction

Related diseases: (Mysthema gravis, Tetenai).



  • Structure; origin, conduction and regulation of    heart beat
  • Cardiac cycle
  • ECG.
  • Related diseases: ( Angina pectoris, Atherosclerosis, cardiac arrest, Tachycardia, Bradycardia)

Peripheral circulation –

  • Blood pressure

Capillary pressure


Physiology of Nerve Impulse and Reflex Action

  • Functional architecture of a neuron
  • Origin and propagation of nerve impulse,
  • Synaptic transmission
  • Reflex action and reflex arc

Related diseases: (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer, Multiple sclerosis, Epilepsy.)

Essential Readings: 
  • Tortora, G.J. and Derrickson, B.H. (2009). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, XII Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  •  Widmaier, E.P., Raff, H. and Strang, K.T. (2008)
  • Vander’s Human Physiology, XI Edition., McGraw Hill
  • Text Book of Medical Physiology; Guyton, A.C; International student edition. W.B. Saunders.
  • Text Book of Medical Physiology; Chatterjee, M.N and Shinde, R.; Jaypee brothers.
  • General and Comparative Animal Physiology, Hoar, W.S. Prentice Hall of Indian.
  • Animal Physiology: adaptation and Environment, Knut Schiemdt  Neilsen. Cambridge  Press, UK.
  • A regulatory Systems Approach. Strand, F.L. Physiology: Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.
  • Ganong. Review of medical physiology. 21 st edition, Lang medical Publications.
  • Keel et al., Samson Wright’s  Applied Physiology, 13 th Edition Oxford Press.
Academic Year: