General Physiology

Paper Code: 
ZOL 221
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course objective

  •  This course will emphasize on the normal physiology of each organ system of the body to students; this includes knowledge of the structure and function of the major organ systems, including the molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis.
  •  To understand the role of various enzymes and other factors involved in the physiology of digestion, respiration, muscles, nervous system, circulatory system and their associated disorders

Learning outcome

Learning outcome (at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

CLO23: Understand the process of digestion and absorption of major constituents of food and mechanism of walk along the theory of muscle contraction.

CLO24: Learn about the structure of heart, cardiac cycle, conduction of impulse and blood coagulation.

CLO25: Acquire the knowledge about mechanism and nervous and chemical regulation of breathing, role of haemoglobin and transport of gases based on partial pressure.

CLO26: Understand the process of excretion and role of kidneys and components of the nervous system and conduction of nerve impulses.

CLO27: Intercept the knowledge about different endocrine glands, their hormones, functions and mechanism of hormone action.


Approach in teaching:

Interactive Lectures, Discussion, Tutorials, Reading assignments, Demonstration, Team teaching


Learning activities for the students:

Self learning assignments, Effective questions, Simulation, Seminar presentation, Giving tasks, Field practical



·         Class test

·         Semester end examinations

·         Quiz

·         Assignments

·         Presentation

·         Individual and group projects


Unit I: 


  • Digestive enzymes and digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids-intestinal absorption and  assimilation

Physiology of movement

  • Ultra-structure of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle
  • Muscle contraction
  • Physical properties of muscle
Unit II: 


  • Gases in external environment. Respiratory organs and their ventilation. Respiratory pigments, BMR- transport of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), nervous and chemical control of respiration


  • Vascular pumps, Cardiac muscle properties. Heart beat and its regulation, coagulation, cardiac rhythm, Role of haemoglobin.
Unit III: 

Osmotic and ionic regulation

  • Maintenance of water and electrolyte balance in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, air breathing vertebrates


  • Vertebrate kidney and formation of urine-nitrogen excretion- renal regulation of acid base balance
Unit IV: 

Information processing in sensory and nervous system

  • Nervous System - Structural elements, Membrane potential, Nerve impulse propagation, Synapse and Synaptic Transmission and Neurotransmitters
Unit V: 

Chemical correlation and Neuroendocrine control

Endocrine glands (Structure, Function, Synthesis and Disorders)

  1. Pituitary
  2. Thyroid
  3. Thymus
  4. Adrenal
  5. Pancreas
  6. Parathyroid
  • Mechanism of Hormone action
  • Hormonal control of male and female reproduction and implantation, parturition and lactation in mammals.
Essential Readings: 
  1. Text Book of Medical Physiology; Chatterjee, M.N and Shende, R.; Jaypee brothers.
  2. A Textbook of Animal Physiology; Berry,A.K.; Emkay Publisher, Delhi.
  3. Text Book of Medical Physiology; Guyton A.C.;
  4. Animal Physiology Mechanisms and Adaptation. Eckert, R.W.H. Freeman and Company, New York
  5. Biochemical Adaptation. I-fochachka,P.W. and Somero, G.N. Princeton, New Jersey.
  6. General and Comparative Animal Physiology, Hoar, W.S.Prentice Hall of Indian.
  7. Animal Physiologyl: adaptation and Environment, Schiemdt Neilsen. Cambridge
  8. A regulatory Systems Approach. Strand, F.L.Physiology: Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.
  9. Practical Biochemistry, Pummer, L. Tata McGraw Hill
  10. Environmental and Metabolic Animal Psysiology, Prosser, C.L.Wiley-Liss Inc., New York.
  11. Environmental Psysiology, Willmer,P.G.Stone, and I.Johnson. Blackwell Sci. Oxford, UK.
  12. Adaptation to Envioronment. Essays on the Psysiology of Marine Animals. Newell, R.C. (ed.) 1976. Butterworths, London, UK.
  13. Psysiological Ecology: An evolutionally approach to resource use. Townsend, C.R. and P. Cawlow. Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, UK
  14. Optima for Animals. Alexander, R.M.N. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton, NJ
  15. Comparative Physiology: Life in water or land. Dejours,P., L. Bolis,                         C.R.Taylor and ER. Weibel (eds.). Liviana Press, Padova, Italy
  16. Animals and Temperature: Phenotypic and Evolutionary Adaptation. Johnson, I.A., & A.F.Bennett (eds.) Cambridge Univ.Press, Cambridge, UK.
  17. Physiological Animal Ecology. Louw, G.N.Longman Harloss, UK.
  18. General and Comparative Endocrinology, E.J.W.Barrington. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
  19. Comparative Vertebratic Endocrinology. P.J.Bentley. Cambridge University Press.
  20. Text Book of Endicrinology, R.H.Williams. W.B. Saunders.
  21. Endocrine Physiology. C.R.Martin. Oxford Univ. Press.
  22. Comparative Endocrinology, A. Gorbman et al. John Wiley & Sons


Academic Year: