Gene Differentiation & Gamete Biology

Paper Code: 
ZOL 421
Unit I: 

Introduction to  animal development

  • Problems  and scope of developmental biology
  • Development in unicellular eukaryotes
  • Developmental patterns in Metazoans

Oogenesis & vitellogenesis

  • Morphology
  • Endocrinology
  • Ovarian follicular growth and differentiation

Ovulation and ovum transport in mammals

Unit II: 


Creating multicellularity

  • Cleavage types, planes and pattern
  •  Blastulation
  • Gastrulation in tetrapods: Morphogenetic movements

Early Vertebrate development(till differentiation)

  • Neurulation: Formation and Differentiation of neural tube

 Derivatives of Ectoderm, Mesoderm and endoderm

Unit III: 
  • Cell commitment, specification and differentiation
  • Cell specification in nematodes
  • Germ cell determinants
  • Germ cell migration
  • Progressive cell -cell interaction

Early development in Birds and Mammals

·         Cleavage and Gastrulation

·         Establishment of body axis


Unit IV: 
  • Genetics of axis specifications in Drosophila

Homeobox concept

Tetrapod limb development

·         Specification of the Limb fields:Hox genes and Retinoic acid

·         Induction of the early Limb bud : Fibroblast Growth factors

  • Specification of Forelimb or Himdlimb:Tbx4 and Tbx5
  • Induction of the apical Ectodermal ridge
  • Generating the Proximal –Distal axis of the limb
  • Specification of the Anterior –Posterior limb
  • Generation of  the Dorsal –Ventral axis of the limb
  • Cooordination of the three axis
  • Cell Death and the formation of the digits and Joints

Hormones as mediators of development

  • Amphibians Metamorphosis: Morphological Changes, Biochemical Changes associated with metamorphosis and Hormonal Control

Insect Metamorphosis: Types of insect metamorphosis, Hormonal control

Unit V: 

Chromosomal sex determination in mammals: Testis determining genes, Ovarian genes

Secondary sex determination in mammals

Environmental sex determination

Significance of  Stem Cells


Essential Readings: 
  1. An Introduction to Embryology : Balinsky, B.I. : W.B. Saudersm, Delhi.
  2. Development Biology. Berrill, N.J. McGraw Hill book Com. New York.
  3. Modern Embryology : Bodemer, C.W. : Holt Reinchart and Winstom, Inc. New York, Chicago.
Academic Year: