Environmental Toxicology II

Paper Code: 
ZOL 423C
Unit I: 


  • Epidemiologic Evidence of Health effects
  • Outdoor air pollution
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Pollutants of outdoor ambient air
  • Type of air pollution (SO2, particulate matter, photochemical air pollution, smog)
  • Global warming
  • Ozone depletion

Water Pollution

  • Important water pollutants
  • Infectious agents
  • Human waste disposal
  • Waste water treatment
Unit II: 

Food Toxicology

  • Nature and complexity of food
  • Safety standards for food, food ingredients and contaminants
  • (Food, drug & cosmetics Act, food and colour additives, GRAS (generally recognized as safe)
  • Tolerance setting for substances in food (Pesticide residues, drugs used in food producing animals, unavoidable contaminants (heavy metals, chlorinated organics, Nitrosamine, food-borne molds & mycotoxins)
  • Microbiologic Agents
  • Substances produced by cooking
  • BSEC (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy)

Forensic / Analytic Toxicology

  • Analytical role in general toxicology
  • Analytical role in Forensic Toxicology
  • Toxicologic investigation of a poison death
  • Criminal poisoning of the living
Unit III: 

Occupational Toxicology

  • Workplace, exposures, and standards (Nature of the work force, Determinants of dose occupational exposure limits)
  • Occupational diseases
  • Toxicological Evaluation of Occupational agents

Regulatory Toxicology

  • Programs for regulating chemical hazards (Food & Drug Administration, EPA, Occupational Safety and Health Administrations)
  • Regulatory Control over Toxicity
  • Animal Welfare Requirement

Wild Life Toxicology

Unit IV: 

Degradation of Xenobiotic Compounds

  • Persistent Compounds
  • Developing the Microorganisms
  • Degradation Mechanism
  • Genetics & Evolution of Bio-degradation


  • Microorganisms in Bioremediation and their role in bioremediation
  • Bioremediation Processes and Technologies
  • Monitoring the efficacy of bioremediation
  • Bioremediation of Marine Oil pollutants and air pollutants
Unit V: 

Biofertilizers and Biopesticides

  • Biofertilizers in Agrosystem
  • Biopesticides
  • Microbial and Antimicrobial pesticides
  • IPM


  • Types
  • Materials
  • Process
  • Physicochemical Characteristics of the Environment
  • Decomposting Stages
  • Methods
  • Vermicomposting


  • Microorganisms Used
  • Biochemistry
  • Extraction from Mixture
  • Types
  • Methods
  • Metal Precipitation
Essential Readings: 
  1. Casarett and Daull’s Toxicology : The basic science of poisons. By : Curtis D. Klaassen 6th Edn., McGraw-Hill (Medical Publishing Div. NewYork
  2. Environmental Biotechnology – by. Indu Shekhar Thakur, I.K. International Pub.(2006)
  3. Toxicology, Principles and Applications: Raymond I.M.. CRC Publication.
  4. Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications by Atlas Bartha (An imprint of Addison Wesley Longman Inc)
  5. Environmental Microbiology: Maier R.M., Academic Press. 2000 Press, Cambridge. .1993.
  6. Environmental Science- A global concern; Cunningham W.P. and Saigo B.W Win. C. Brown Publishers, London, 1995.
  7. Advances in Industrial Waste Water Treatment; P.K. Goel; Technoscience Publications. Jaipur, 1999.
  8. An Introduction to Air Pollution; Trivedy R.K. and Goel P.K., Technoscience Publications, Jaipur, 1995.
  9. Problems of Environment Management in India; Goel M.M., Sharma M.C. and Purohit N.K; Anupriya Publishing House, Jaipur, 1999.
  10. Environmental Science (A study of interrelations); Enger E.D. and Smith B.F.;  Win. C. Brown Pub. (Latest Edition).  
  11. Botkin D. And Keller E. Environmental Science. Earth as a Living Planet; Botkin D. And Keller E
Academic Year: