Cell Biology

Paper Code: 
ZOL 122
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course objectives:

This course will enable the students to –

  1. Formulate basic concepts of cellular structure and function covering all the components of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, especially macromolecules, membranes, and organelles.
  2. Investigate an account of the complex regulatory mechanisms that control cell functions therefore it will help students to understand how these cellular components are used to generate and utilize energy in cells.


Course Outcomes (COs):



Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Paper Code

Paper Title

ZOL 122


Cell Biology

The students will-


CO6: Analyse the functions of nucleus and extra nuclear organelles and understand the intricate cellular mechanisms involved.

CO7: Appraise the detailed knowledge of different pathways related to cell signalling and apoptosis thus enabling them to understand the anomalies in cancer

CO8:Develop an understanding about how cells work in healthy and diseased states and to give a ‘health forecast’ by analyzing the genetic database and cell information.

CO9: Investigate new avenues of joining research in areas such as genetic engineering of cells, cloning, vaccines development, human fertility programme, organ transplant, etc.

CO10: Develop an understanding how tissues are produced from cells in a normal course and about any malfunction which may lead to benign or malignant tumor.

CO11: Differentiate and evaluate the role of different cytoskeleton components in intracellular movements and intercellular interactions.

Approach in teaching:

Interactive Lectures, Discussion, Tutorials, Reading assignments, Demonstration, PowerPoint presentations


Learning activities for the students:

Self learning assignments, Effective questions, Simulation, Seminar presentation, Giving tasks.

Class test

Semester end examinations,




Open book test



Unit I: 
  • Cell Theory
  • Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • Cell organelles-ER, Golgi, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Peroxisomes
  • Cytoskeleton: Structure, Function and Dynamics of

      Microfilaments: Actin and Myosin

 Microtubule in mitosis.

 Kinesin and Dynein.

 Intermediate Filaments



Unit II: 

Bio membranes

  •   Phospholipids: main lipid constituent.
  •   Cytosolic and exoplasmic face of bio membranes.
  •   Intrinsic and extrinsic proteins.
  •  Glycolipids.
  •  Mobility of lipids and integral proteins
  •   Fluidity of bio membrane.

 Transport across cell membranes.

  • Passive Transport
  • Diffusion & Facilitated Diffusion
  •  Osmosis and water channels.
  •   Active Transport- pumps, ABC transporters
  • Cotransport by symporters and antiporters


Unit III: 
Cell-Cell Signalling.
  • Endocrine, paracrine, autocrine signalling.
  •  Receptor Proteins- Intracellular Receptors.
  • Cell surface receptors-G-protein coupled receptors, ion channel receptors, tyrosine kinase linked receptors and receptors with intrinsic enzymatic acti       Second messenger system-cAMP, IP3-DAG and MAP kinase pathways.
  • Signal-Mediated transport through Nuclear Pore.
  • Nuclear Pore Complex.
  • Nuclear export signals.
  • Nuclear localization signals
Unit IV: 
Cell Junctions: Occluding, Adherence and communicating junctions 
Cell- cell adhesion molecules
●       Selectin
●       Cadherin
●       Integrin
●       Ig Superfamily
Cell matrix adhesion
●       Integrins
●       Collagen
Non-collagen components of extracellular matrix
Unit V: 
Protein sorting and transport
Protein secretion- Regulative and Secretory Pathways
Targeting proteins to Endoplasmic Reticulum
Insertion of protein into ER membrane
Protein folding and processing in ER
Export of proteins from ER
cargo selection, coat protein and vesicle budding
Post translational modification in Golgi
Protein sorting and export from Golgi
Essential Readings: 
IWASA, J., MARSHALL, W. F., & KARP, G. (2016). Karp's cell and molecular biology: concepts and experiments.
COOPER, G. M., & HAUSMAN, R. E. (2009). The cell: a molecular approach. Washington, D.C., ASM Press.
Nelson et al, Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry, 4th Edition, McMillan, 2006.
Alberts et al, Molecular Biology of The Cell, 2nd Edition , Garland 2007.
Lewin, Genes IX, 9th Edition , Jones & Bartlett, 2007
Molecular Biology of the Cell ; Lewis and Watson
Genes VII : Benjamin Lewin
Lewis, Human Genetics, 7th Edition, WCB & McGraw, 2007.
Pastemak, An Introduction to Molecular Human Genetics, 2nd Edition, Fritzgarald, 2005.
Strachen and Read, Human Molecular Genetics, 3rd Edition, Garland Sci. Publishing, 2004.
Structural Chemistry and Molecular Biology Alexander Rich and Norman Davidson
The Chemical Foundations of Molecular :James D. Watson
Human Cytogenetic Techniques and Clinical Applications HemaPurandare and Arnit Chakravarty
Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology Vol. 9 J. N. Davidson
Essentials of Human Genetics Bhatnagar,Kothari,Mehta
Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics, by Emery, A.E.H and D.L. Rimoin (Eds_ (1990-2nd edition) Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
Molecular Basis of Inherited Diseases, (6th Edition-1989) by Scriver, C.R. A.L. Beudit, W.S. Sty ab nd D. Valle (Eds0 McGrawHill, New York.
Human Genetics by S.D. Gangane (2nd edition-Reprint 2001), B.L Churchill Livingstone Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Genetics in Medicine by M.W. Thompson et al, 5th Edition, W.B. Sounders Company, London
Genetic basis of common diseases by R. A. King et al, Oxford University Press.
Mendelian inheritance in Man by Mc. Kusick V.A. (1998), 12th Edition, John Hopsins University Press, Baltimore.
Cell biology -NPTEL- https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103012
Molecular Biology-NPTEL-https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102104052
Molecular and Cellular Biology
BMC Cell and Molecular Biology- ISSN: 2661-8850
Academic Year: