Cell and Molecular Biology

Paper Code: 
ZOL 323B
Unit I: 


  • Phospholipids : main lipid constituent.
  • Cytosolic and exoplasmic face of biomembranes.
  • Universality of biomembranes.
  • Difference in phospholipid composition in two membrane leaflets. Intrinsic and extrinsic proteins.
  • Integral and glycolipids.
  • Mobility of lipids and integral proteins in biomembrane.
  • Fluidity of bio membrane.
  • Cell Junctions (Gap, tight and desmosomes )

Transport across cell membrane.

  • Diffusion of small molecules.
  • Osmosis and water channels.
  • Uniporter-catalyzed transport.
  • Intracellular ion environment and membrane electric potential.
  • Active Transport.
  • Cotransport by symporters and antiporters.
  • Transport across epithelia.
Unit II: 

Cytoskeleton: Structure, Function and Dynamics of :

  • Microfilarnents.
  1. Actin
  2. Myosin :
  • Microtubles.    
  • Microtubules and mitosis.
  • Kinesin and Dynein.
  • Intermediate Filaments

Cilia and Flagella.

  • Structure and movements:

Cell-Cell Signaling.

  • Endocrine, paracrine, autocrine signaling.
  • Receptor Proteins-Cell surface receptors and intracellular receptors.
  • Cell surface receptors-G-protein coupled receptors, ion channel receptors, tyrosine kinase  linked  receptors and receptors with intrinsic enzymatic activity.
  • Second messenger system-cAMP and IP3 DAG.
  • MAP kinase pathways.

Signal-Mediated transport through Nuclear Pore.

  • Nuclear Pore Complex.
  • Nuclear export signals.
  • Nuclear localization signals
Unit III: 

Cell-Cell adhesion and communication.

  • Cadherin mediated Ca- dependent homophilic cell-cell adhesion.
  • N-CAMs mediate Ca-independeht homophilic cell-cell adhesion.
  • Cadherin containing junctions connect cells.
  • Gap junctions and connexin.

Cell matrix adhesion.

  • Integrins
  • Collagen
  • Non-collagen components of  extracellular matrix   

Cell cycle.

  • Partition and cytokinesis.
  • Eukaryotic cell cycle-Gl, S, G2 and M phases.
  • Cell cycle and check points.
  • Molecular basis of cell cycle regulation.
  • Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases.
  • Regulation of CDK-cyclin activity.
Unit IV: 


  • Tumor cells and the onset of cancer.
  • Proto-oncogenesis and tumor suppressor genes.
  • Mutation causing loss of cell cycle.
  • Mutations affecting genome stability.

Aging: The biology of senescence.

  • Maximum life span and life expectancy.
  • Causes of aging:

Cell Death.

  • Apoptosis and necrosis.
Unit V: 

Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes.

  • Molecular definition of gene.
  • Chromosomal organization of genes and non-coding DNA.
  • Mobile DNA.
  • Functional rearrangement of chromosomal DNA
  • Morphological and functional elements of eukaryotic
  • chromosomes.

Regulation of Gene Expression.

  • Operon concept.
  • Catabolic repression.
  • Positive and Negative regulation.
  • Inducers and co-repressors.

DNA binding proteins and gene regulation.

  • DNA binding domains.
  • Homeodomain proteins.
  • Zinc finger proteins.
  • Winged-helix (Forked head) proteins.
  • Leucine-Zipper proteins.
  • Helix-loop-helix proteins.
Academic Year: