Biosystematics, Taxonomy &Evolution

Paper Code: 
ZOL 121
Unit I: 

Definition and basic concepts of biosystematics and taxonomy

  • Importance and applications of biosytematics in biology
  • Material basis of biosystematics-different attributes
  • Trends in biosystematics-
  • Chemotaxonomy,
  • Cytotaxonomy,
  • Molecular taxonomy


Unit II: 

Dimensions of speciation and taxonomic characters   

  • Dimensions of speciation – types of lineage changes,  production of additional lineage
  • Mechanisms of speciation in panmictic and apomictic species
  • Species concept- Species category, different species concept, subspecies and other infra specific categories
  • Theories of Biological classification , Hierarchy of categories
  • Taxonomic characters – different kinds, origin of reproductive isolation


Unit III: 

Procedure keys in taxonomy

  • Taxonomy procedures-Taxonomic collections, preservations, curetting process of identification
  • Taxonomic keys-Different kinds of Taxonomic keys, their merits and demerits
  • Systematic publication-Different kinds of publications
  • Process of typification and different zoological types
  • International code of Zoological nomenclature (ICZN) – its operative principles, interpretation and application of important rules, Zoological nomenclature, formation of scientific names of various taxa.
  • Evaluation of biodiversity indices:
  • Shannon-Weinner index, dominance index
Unit IV: 

Concept of evolution and theories of organic evaluation with an emphasis on Darwinism.

  • Micro and Macro-evolution
  • Neo-Darwinism
  • Hardy –Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium
  • A detailed account of Destabilizing forces:

    (i) Natural selection
    (ii) Mutation
    (iii) Genetic drift
    (iv) Migration
    (v) Meiotic drive

Unit V: 

Genetics of quantitative traits in populations

  • Analysis of quantitative traits
  • Quantitative traits and natural selection
  • Genotype-environment interactions
  • Inbreeding depression and heterosis
  • Molecular analysis of quantitative traits
  • Phenotypic plasticity
  • Molecular phylogenetics
  • How to construct phylogenetic trees
  • Phylogenetic inference-Distance methods, parsimony methods, maximum likelihood method
  • Immunological techniques
Essential Readings: 
  • Evolutinary Biology, Futuyamma, D.J.Suinuauer Associates, INC Publishers, Sunderland.
  • A Primer of Population Genetics. Hart,D.L.suinuaer Associates, Inc, Massachusetts.
  • Genes and Evolution. Jha A.P.John Publication, New Delhi
  • Species Evolution-The role of chromosomal change. King,M. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Evolution and Genetics Merral, D.J.Holt, Rinchart and Winston, Inc.
  • Evolutinary Genetics. Smith,J.M. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Evolution. Strikberger, M.W.Jones and Barlett Publishers, Boston London
  • Bastchelet-F-Introduction to mathematics for life scientists SpringerVerlag, Berling.
  • Skoal R.R. and F.J.Rohiff Biometry-Freeman, San-Francisco.
  • Snecdor, G.W. and W.G. Cocharan Statisical Methods of affiliated-East-West Press, New Delhi.
  •  Murry J.D. Mathematical Biology-Springer, Verlag, Berlin.
Academic Year: